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cheat sheet

Comments

VB.NET

?

'Single line only
Rem Single line only

?

C#

// Single line
/* Multiple
line */
/// XML comments on single line
/** XML comments on multiple lines */

Program Structure

VB.NET

?

Imports System
Namespace MyNameSpace
??Class HelloWorld
????'Entry point which delegates to C-style main Private Function
????Public Overloads Shared Sub Main()
??????Main(System.Environment.GetCommandLineArgs())
????End Sub

??Overloads Shared Sub Main(args() As String)
????System.Console.WriteLine("Hello World")
??End Sub 'Main
??End Class 'HelloWorld End Namespace 'MyNameSpace

?

C#

using System
Namespace MyNameSpace
{
??class HelloWorld
??{?????
????static void Main(string[] args)
????{
??????System.Console.WriteLine("Hello World");
????}
??}
}

Data Types

VB.NET

?

'Value Types
Boolean
Byte
Char (example: "A")
Short, Integer, Long
Single, Double
Decimal
Date 


'Reference Types
Object
String



Dim x As Integer
System.Console.WriteLine(x.GetType())
System.Console.WriteLine(TypeName(x)) 


'Type conversion
Dim d As Single = 3.5
Dim i As Integer = CType (d, Integer)
i = CInt (d)
i = Int(d)

?

C#

?

//Value Types
bool
byte, sbyte
char (example: 'A')
short, ushort, int, uint, long, ulong
float, double
decimal
DateTime 


//Reference Types
object
string



int x;
Console.WriteLine(x.GetType())
Console.WriteLine(typeof(int)) 


//Type conversion
float d = 3.5;
int i = (int) d

?

Constants

VB.NET

Const MAX_AUTHORS As Integer = 25
ReadOnly MIN_RANK As Single = 5.00

C#

const int MAX_AUTHORS = 25;
readonly float MIN_RANKING = 5.00;

Enumerations

VB.NET

?

Enum Action
??Start
??'Stop is a reserved word
[Stop]
??Rewind
??Forward
End Enum

Enum Status
?? Flunk = 50
?? Pass = 70
?? Excel = 90
End Enum

Dim a As Action = Action.Stop 
If a <> Action.Start Then _
'Prints "Stop is 1" 
? ?System.Console.WriteLine(a.ToString & " is " & a)

'Prints 70
System.Console.WriteLine(Status.Pass)
'Prints Pass
System.Console.WriteLine(Status.Pass.ToString())


Enum Weekdays
?? Saturday
?? Sunday
?? Monday
?? Tuesday
?? Wednesday
?? Thursday
?? Friday
End Enum 'Weekdays

?

C#

?

enum Action {Start, Stop, Rewind, Forward};
enum Status {Flunk = 50, Pass = 70, Excel = 90};











Action a = Action.Stop;
if (a != Action.Start)
//Prints "Stop is 1"
? System.Console.WriteLine(a + " is " + (int) a); 

// Prints 70
System.Console.WriteLine((int) Status.Pass); 
// Prints Pass
System.Console.WriteLine(Status.Pass);



enum Weekdays
{
? Saturday, Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday
}

?

Operators

VB.NET

?

'Comparison
=? ? <=? >=? <> 


'Arithmetic
+? -? *? /
Mod
\? (integer division)
^? (raise to a power) 


'Assignment
=? +=? -=? *=? /=? \= ?^=? <<= ?>>=? &= 


'Bitwise
And??AndAlso? Or??OrElse? Not? <> 


'Logical
And? AndAlso? Or??OrElse??Not 


'String Concatenation
& 

?

C#

?

//Comparison
==? ? <=? >=? != 


//Arithmetic
+? -? *? /
%? (mod)
/? (integer division if both operands are ints)
Math.Pow(x, y) 


//Assignment
=? +=? -= ?*=? /= ? %=? &=? |=? ^=? <<=? >>=? ++? -- 


//Bitwise
& ?| ?^???~? <> 


//Logical
&&? ||?? ! 


//String Concatenation
+

?

Choices

VB.NET

?

greeting = IIf(age < 20, "What's up?", "Hello") 


'One line doesn't require "End If", no "Else"
If language = "VB.NET" Then langType = "verbose" 


'Use: to put two commands on same line
If x <> 100 And y < 5 Then x *= 5 : y *= 2?? 


'Preferred
If x <> 100 And y < 5 Then
? x *= 5
? y *= 2
End If 




'or to break up any long single command use _
If henYouHaveAReally And _ 
itNeedsToBeBrokenInto2 ? > Lines ?Then _
? UseTheUnderscore(charToBreakItUp) 


If x > 5 Then
? x *= y 
ElseIf x = 5 Then
? x += y 
ElseIf x < 10 Then
? x -= y
Else
? x /= y
End If 


'Must be a primitive data type
Select Case color ??
? Case "black", "red"
??? r += 1
? Case "blue"
??? b += 1
? Case "green"
??? g += 1
? Case Else
??? other += 1
End Select

?

C#

?

greeting = age < 20 ? "What's up?" : "Hello"; 











if (x != 100 && y < 5)
{
? // Multiple statements must be enclosed in {}
? x *= 5;
? y *= 2;
} 








if (x > 5) 
? x *= y; 
else if (x == 5) 
? x += y; 
else if (x < 10) 
? x -= y; 
else 
? x /= y;



//Must be integer or string
switch (color)
{
? case "black":
? case "red":??? r++;
?? break;
? case "blue"
?? break;
? case "green": g++;??
?? break;
? default:??? other++;
?? break;
}

?

Loops

VB.NET

?

'Pre-test Loops:
While c < 10
? c += 1
End While Do Until c = 10
? c?+= 1
Loop 


'Post-test Loop:
Do While c < 10
? c += 1
Loop 


For c = 2 To 10 Step 2
? System.Console.WriteLine(c)
Next 



'Array or collection looping
Dim names As String() = {"Steven", "SuOk", "Sarah"}
For Each s As String In names
? System.Console.WriteLine(s)
Next

?

C#

//Pre-test Loops: while (i < 10)
? i++;
for (i = 2; i < = 10; i += 2)
? System.Console.WriteLine(i); 






//Post-test Loop:
do
? i++;
while (i < 10);








// Array or collection looping
string[] names = {"Steven", "SuOk", "Sarah"};
foreach (string s in names)
? System.Console.WriteLine(s);

?

Arrays

VB.NET

?

Dim nums() As Integer = {1, 2, 3}
For i As Integer = 0 To nums.Length - 1 
? Console.WriteLine(nums(i)) 
Next 

'4 is the index of the last element, so it holds 5 elements
Dim names(4) As String
names(0) = "Steven"
'Throws System.IndexOutOfRangeException
names(5) = "Sarah"


'Resize the array, keeping the existing
'values (Preserve is optional)
ReDim Preserve names(6)





Dim twoD(rows-1, cols-1) As Single 
twoD(2, 0) = 4.5


Dim jagged()() As Integer = { _
? New Integer(4) {}, New Integer(1) {}, New Integer(2) {} }
jagged(0)(4) = 5

?

C#

?

int[] nums = {1, 2, 3};
for (int i = 0; i < nums.Length; i++)
? Console.WriteLine(nums[i]);


// 5 is the size of the array
string[] names = new string[5];
names[0] = "Steven";
// Throws System.IndexOutOfRangeException
names[5] = "Sarah"


// C# can't dynamically resize an array.
//Just copy into new array.
string[] names2 = new string[7];
// or names.CopyTo(names2, 0);
Array.Copy(names, names2, names.Length); 



float[,] twoD = new float[rows, cols];
twoD[2,0] = 4.5; 


int[][] jagged = new int[3][] {
? new int[5], new int[2], new int[3] };
jagged[0][4] = 5;

?

Functions

VB.NET

?

'Pass by value (in, default), reference
'(in/out), and reference (out)
Sub TestFunc(ByVal x As Integer, ByRef y As Integer,
ByRef z As Integer)
? x += 1
? y += 1
? z = 5
End Sub 


'c set to zero by default

Dim a = 1, b = 1, c As Integer
TestFunc(a, b, c)
System.Console.WriteLine("{0} {1} {2}", a, b, c) '1 2 5 


'Accept variable number of arguments
Function Sum(ByVal ParamArray nums As Integer()) As Integer
? Sum = 0
? For Each i As Integer In nums
??? Sum += i
? Next
End Function 'Or use a Return statement like C#

Dim total As Integer = Sum(4, 3, 2, 1) 'returns 10 


'Optional parameters must be listed last
'and must have a default value
Sub SayHello(ByVal name As String,
Optional ByVal prefix As String = "")
??System.Console.WriteLine("Greetings, " & prefix
& " " & name)
End Sub


SayHello("Steven", "Dr.")
SayHello("SuOk")

?

C#

// Pass by value (in, default), reference
//(in/out), and reference (out)
void TestFunc(int x, ref int y, out int z) {
? x++;
? y++;
? z = 5;
} 




int a = 1, b = 1, c; // c doesn't need initializing
TestFunc(a, ref b, out c);
System.Console.WriteLine("{0} {1} {2}", a, b, c); // 1 2 5 


// Accept variable number of arguments
int Sum(params int[] nums) {
? int sum = 0;
? foreach (int i in nums)
??? sum += i;
? return sum;
} 


int total = Sum(4, 3, 2, 1); // returns 10 


/* C# doesn't?support optional arguments/parameters.
Just create two different versions of the same function. */
void SayHello(string name, string prefix) {
? System.Console.WriteLine("Greetings, " + prefix + " " + name);
}

void SayHello(string name) {
? SayHello(name, "");
}

?

Exception Handling

VB.NET

?

Class Withfinally
?? Public Shared Sub Main()
????? Try
???????? Dim x As Integer = 5
???????? Dim y As Integer = 0
???????? Dim z As Integer = x / y
???????? Console.WriteLine(z)
????? Catch e As DivideByZeroException
???????? System.Console.WriteLine("Error occurred")
????? Finally
???????? System.Console.WriteLine("Thank you")
????? End Try
?? End Sub 'Main
End Class 'Withfinally

?

C#

?

class? Withfinally
{
? public static void Main()
? {
??? try
??? {
????? int x = 5;
????? int y = 0;
????? int z = x/y;
????? Console.WriteLine(z);
??? }
??? catch(DivideByZeroException e)
??? {
????? System.Console.WriteLine("Error occurred");
??? }
??? finally
??? {
????? System.Console.WriteLine("Thank you");
??? }
? }
}

?

Namespaces

VB.NET

?

Namespace ASPAlliance.DotNet.Community
? ...
End Namespace 


'or 


Namespace ASPAlliance 
? Namespace DotNet
??? Namespace Community
????? ...
??? End Namespace
? End Namespace
End Namespace 


Imports ASPAlliance.DotNet.Community

?

C#

?

namespace ASPAlliance.DotNet.Community {
? ...
} 


// or 


namespace ASPAlliance {
? namespace DotNet {
??? namespace Community {
????? ...
??? }
? }
} 


using ASPAlliance.DotNet.Community;

?

Classes / Interfaces

VB.NET

?

'Accessibility keywords
Public
Private
Friend
Protected
Protected Friend
Shared 


'Inheritance
Class Articles
? Inherits Authors
? ...
End Class 


Imports System


Interface IArticle
?? Sub Show()
End Interface 'IArticle
?_


Class IAuthor
?? Implements IArticle
???
?? Public Sub Show()
????? System.Console.WriteLine("Show() method Implemented")
?? End Sub 'Show
?? 
?? 'Entry point which delegates to C-style main Private Function
?? Public Overloads Shared Sub Main()
????? Main(System.Environment.GetCommandLineArgs())
?? End Sub
?? 
?? 
?? Overloads Public Shared Sub Main(args() As String)
????? Dim author As New IAuthor()
????? author.Show()
?? End Sub 'Main
End Class 'IAuthor

?

C#

?

//Accessibility keywords
public
private
internal
protected
protected internal
static 


//Inheritance
class Articles: Authors {
? ...
} 


using System;


interface IArticle
{
? void Show();
}


class IAuthor:IArticle
{
? public void Show()
? {
??? System.Console.WriteLine("Show() method Implemented");
? }


? public static void Main(string[] args)
? {
??? IAuthor author = new IAuthor();
??? author.Show();
? }
}

?

Constructors / Destructors

VB.NET

Class TopAuthor
? Private _topAuthor As Integer

? Public Sub New()
??? _topAuthor = 0
? End Sub

? Public Sub New(ByVal topAuthor As Integer)
??? Me._topAuthor = topAuthor
? End Sub

? Protected Overrides Sub Finalize()
???'Desctructor code to free unmanaged resources
??? MyBase.Finalize() 
? End Sub
End Class

C#

?

class TopAuthor {
? private int _topAuthor;

? public TopAuthor() {
?????_topAuthor = 0;
? }

? public TopAuthor(int topAuthor) {
??? this._topAuthor= topAuthor
? }

? ~TopAuthor() {
??? // Destructor code to free unmanaged resources.
??? // Implicitly creates a Finalize method
? }
}

?

Objects

VB.NET

?

Dim author As TopAuthor = New TopAuthor
With author
? .Name = "Steven"
? .AuthorRanking = 3
End With

author.Rank("Scott")
author.Demote() 'Calling Shared method
'or
TopAuthor.Rank() 


Dim author2 As TopAuthor = author 'Both refer to same object
author2.Name = "Joe"
System.Console.WriteLine(author2.Name) 'Prints Joe 


author = Nothing 'Free the object 


If author Is Nothing Then _
? author = New TopAuthor 


Dim obj As Object = New TopAuthor
If TypeOf obj Is TopAuthor Then _
? System.Console.WriteLine("Is a TopAuthor object.")

?

C#

?

TopAuthor author = new TopAuthor();

//No "With" construct
author.Name = "Steven";
author.AuthorRanking = 3; 


author.Rank("Scott");
TopAuthor.Demote() //Calling static method 




TopAuthor author2 = author //Both refer to same object
author2.Name = "Joe";
System.Console.WriteLine(author2.Name) //Prints Joe 


author = null //Free the object 


if (author == null)
? author = new TopAuthor(); 


Object obj = new TopAuthor();?
if (obj is TopAuthor)
? SystConsole.WriteLine("Is a TopAuthor object.");

?

Structs

VB.NET

?

Structure AuthorRecord
? Public name As String
? Public rank As Single

? Public Sub New(ByVal name As String, ByVal rank As Single) 
??? Me.name = name
??? Me.rank = rank
? End Sub
End Structure 


Dim author As AuthorRecord = New AuthorRecord("Steven", 8.8)
Dim author2 As AuthorRecord = author

author2.name = "Scott"
System.Console.WriteLine(author.name) 'Prints Steven
System.Console.WriteLine(author2.name) 'Prints Scott

?

C#

struct AuthorRecord {
? public string name;
? public float rank;

? public AuthorRecord(string name, float rank) {
??? this.name = name;
??? this.rank = rank;
? }
}



AuthorRecord author = new AuthorRecord("Steven", 8.8);
AuthorRecord author2 = author

author.name = "Scott";
SystemConsole.WriteLine(author.name); //Prints Steven
System.Console.WriteLine(author2.name); //Prints Scott

?

Properties

VB.NET

?

Private _size As Integer

Public Property Size() As Integer
? Get
?? ?Return _size
? End Get
? Set (ByVal Value As Integer)
??? If Value < 0 Then
????? _size = 0
??? Else
????? _size = Value
??? End If
? End Set
End Property 


foo.Size += 1


Imports System


Class [Date]
?? 
?? Public Property Day() As Integer
????? Get
???????? Return day
????? End Get
????? Set
???????? day = value
????? End Set
?? End Property
?? Private day As Integer
?? 
?? 
?? Public Property Month() As Integer
????? Get
???????? Return month
????? End Get
????? Set
???????? month = value
????? End Set
?? End Property
?? Private month As Integer
?? 
?? 
?? Public Property Year() As Integer
????? Get
???????? Return year
????? End Get
????? Set
???????? year = value
????? End Set
?? End Property
?? Private year As Integer
?? 
?? 
?? Public Function IsLeapYear(year As Integer) As Boolean
????? Return(If year Mod 4 = 0 Then True Else False)
?? End Function 'IsLeapYear
?? 
?? Public Sub SetDate(day As Integer, month As Integer,
year As Integer)
????? Me.day = day
????? Me.month = month
????? Me.year = year
?? End Sub 'SetDate
End Class '[Date]

?

C#

private int _size;

public int Size {
? get {
??? return _size;
? }
? set {
? ? if (value < 0)
? ? ? _size = 0;
? ? else
? ? ? _size = value;
? }
} 



foo.Size++;


using System;
class Date
{
??? public int Day{
??????? get {
??????????? return day;
??????? }
??????? set {
??????????? day = value;
??????? }
??? }
??? int day;


??? public int Month{
??????? get {
??????????? return month;
??????? }
??????? set {
??????????? month = value;
??????? }
??? }
??? int month;


??? public int Year{
??????? get {
??????????? return year;
??????? }
??????? set {
??????????? year = value;
??????? }
??? }
??? int year;


??? public bool IsLeapYear(int year)
??? {
??????? return year%4== 0 ? true: false;
??? }
??? public void SetDate (int day, int month, int year)
??? {
??????? this.day?? = day;
??????? this.month = month;
??????? this.year? = year;
??? }
}

?

Delegates / Events

VB.NET

?

Delegate Sub MsgArrivedEventHandler(ByVal message
As String) 


Event MsgArrivedEvent As MsgArrivedEventHandler 


'or to define an event which declares a
'delegate implicitly
Event MsgArrivedEvent(ByVal message As String) 


AddHandler MsgArrivedEvent, AddressOf My_MsgArrivedCallback
'Won't throw an exception if obj is Nothing
RaiseEvent MsgArrivedEvent("Test message")
RemoveHandler MsgArrivedEvent, AddressOf My_MsgArrivedCallback



Imports System.Windows.Forms 


'WithEvents can't be used on local variable
Dim WithEvents MyButton As Button
MyButton = New Button 


Private Sub MyButton_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, _
? ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles MyButton.Click
? MessageBox.Show(Me, "Button was clicked", "Info", _
??? MessageBoxButtons.OK, MessageBoxIcon.Information)
End Sub

?

C#

?

delegate void MsgArrivedEventHandler(string message); 


event MsgArrivedEventHandler MsgArrivedEvent; 


//Delegates must be used with events in C#


MsgArrivedEvent += new MsgArrivedEventHandler
??(My_MsgArrivedEventCallback);
//Throws exception if obj is null
MsgArrivedEvent("Test message");
MsgArrivedEvent -= new MsgArrivedEventHandler
??(My_MsgArrivedEventCallback); 



using System.Windows.Forms; 


Button MyButton = new Button();
MyButton.Click += new System.EventHandler(MyButton_Click); 


private void MyButton_Click(object sender, System.EventArgs e) {
? MessageBox.Show(this, "Button was clicked", "Info",
??? MessageBoxButtons.OK, MessageBoxIcon.Information);
}

?

Console I/O

VB.NET

?

'Special character constants
vbCrLf, vbCr, vbLf, vbNewLine
vbNullString
vbTab
vbBack
vbFormFeed
vbVerticalTab
""
Chr(65) 'Returns 'A' 


System.Console.Write("What's your name? ")
Dim name As String = System.Console.ReadLine()
System.Console.Write("How old are you? ")
Dim age As Integer = Val(System.Console.ReadLine())
System.Console.WriteLine("{0} is {1} years old.", name, age)
'or
System.Console.WriteLine(name & " is " & age & " years old.")

Dim c As Integer
c = System.Console.Read() 'Read single char
System.Console.WriteLine(c) 'Prints 65 if user enters "A"

?

C#

?

//Escape sequences
\n, \r
\t
\\
\ 


Convert.ToChar(65) //Returns 'A' - equivalent to Chr(num) in VB
// or
(char) 65 


System.Console.Write("What's your name? ");
string name = SYstem.Console.ReadLine();
System.Console.Write("How old are you? ");
int age = Convert.ToInt32(System.Console.ReadLine());
System.Console.WriteLine("{0} is {1} years old.", name, age);
//or
System.Console.WriteLine(name + " is " + age + " years old."); 


int c = System.Console.Read(); //Read single char
System.Console.WriteLine(c); //Prints 65 if user enters "A"

?

File I/O

VB.NET

?

Imports System.IO 


'Write out to text file
Dim writer As StreamWriter = File.CreateText
??("c:\myfile.txt")
writer.WriteLine("Out to file.")
writer.Close() 


'Read all lines from text file
Dim reader As StreamReader = File.OpenText
??("c:\myfile.txt")
Dim line As String = reader.ReadLine()
While Not line Is Nothing
? Console.WriteLine(line)
? line = reader.ReadLine()
End While
reader.Close() 


'Write out to binary file
Dim str As String = "Text data"
Dim num As Integer = 123
Dim binWriter As New BinaryWriter(File.OpenWrite
??("c:\myfile.dat"))
binWriter.Write(str)
binWriter.Write(num)
binWriter.Close() 


'Read from binary file
Dim binReader As New BinaryReader(File.OpenRead
??("c:\myfile.dat"))
str = binReader.ReadString()
num = binReader.ReadInt32()
binReader.Close()

?

C#

?

using System.IO; 


//Write out to text file
StreamWriter writer = File.CreateText
??("c:\\myfile.txt");
writer.WriteLine("Out to file.");
writer.Close(); 


//Read all lines from text file
StreamReader reader = File.OpenText
??("c:\\myfile.txt");
string line = reader.ReadLine();
while (line != null) {
? Console.WriteLine(line);
? line = reader.ReadLine();
}
reader.Close(); 


//Write out to binary file
string str = "Text data";
int num = 123;
BinaryWriter binWriter = new BinaryWriter(File.OpenWrite
??("c:\\myfile.dat"));
binWriter.Write(str);
binWriter.Write(num);
binWriter.Close(); 


//Read from binary file
BinaryReader binReader = new BinaryReader(File.OpenRead
??("c:\\myfile.dat"));
str = binReader.ReadString();
num = binReader.ReadInt32();
binReader.Close();

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